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Cervical Lymphadenitis (CL) in the guinea pig
 
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9/4/2003, 5:39 pm
Paisley   Link to Post Go to the top of this page  
Paisley
Practical Organizer




Cervical Lymphadenitis (CL) or "Lumps"

1. What is CL?
Cervical Lymphadenitis is a swelling or abscess of the cervical lymph nodes in a guinea pig’s neck.

2. What causes CL?
According to recent literature, Streptococcus zooepidemicus, a gram-positive Lancefield Group C streptococcus, is the most common cause of CL. Although not as common, bacteria such as other Streptococcus spp., Streptobacillus moniliformis, Fusiformis and Pasturella spp. may cause CL.

It is also important to note that other diseases, such as Cavian leukemia, and bacteria, such as Yersinia pseudotuberculosis, Bordetella and Salmonellae (S. linate) may cause CL-like symptoms.

A bacterial culture of the swelling/abscess must be taken to find out the definitive cause of the CL.

3. Mode of CL transmission
Almost all the sources agreed that abrasions to the oral mucosa and conjunctiva were common modes of transmission. The CL-causing bacteria was also thought to be transmitted through skin and/or bite wounds. A few of the more recent sources stated that transmission could even be through aerosol or inhalation of the bacteria.

4. What is CL’s incubation period?
No information was found for a definitive CL incubation period in guinea pigs. However, Group C Streptococcus incubation periods in other animal species ranged from 1 day to 2 weeks.

5. What are available treatment methods for CL?
Many sources written from a medical or laboratory viewpoint recommend euthanizing affected guinea pigs. However, many pet owners would prefer to treat a beloved pet first before carrying out this option. Treatment for the pet owner’s guinea pig would consist of the following:
  • Isolate the infected guinea pig BEFORE the lymph node abscesses rupture to prevent spread of the disease-causing organism.
  • Treat with surgical drainage of lymph nodes.
  • Lavage/flush abscesses.
  • Antibiotic therapy for 7-14 days.
6. Antibiotics used to treat CL
Systemic antibiotics such as enrofloxacin (Baytril) or chloramphenical are effective in treating CL. However, Baytril is usually considered the antibiotic of choice to treat adult guinea pigs.

Young guinea pigs generally should not be treated with Baytril as it is believed to affect their growth. You may wish to discuss Baytril and the risks of using it on a young guinea pig with your vet if your pet has CL. Note that Bactrim and Doxycycline are safe antibiotic alternatives for young pigs but a veterinarian must be consulted to see if they would be effective against CL.
Click here for more Baytril and Chloramphenicol dosing information:
    Baytril -- (Enrofloxacin [oral, subcutaneous or intramuscular])
    Oral Dose: 2.5-10.0 mg/kg q12h
    Chloramphenicol --(Chloramphenicol sodium succinate [Subcutaneous, Intramuscular], Chloramphenicol palmitate [oral])
    Oral Dose: 50 mg/kg q12h
A few sources recommended other antibiotics for controlling and eliminating CL. They are listed here for informational purposes:
    Cephaloridine -- 25mg/kg, intramuscular dose for 14 days.
    Cephalexin -- 50-100mg/kg, intramuscular dose for 14 days.
Important note:Cephaloridine and Cephalexin are Cephalosporins. Cephalosporins should be used only under very careful veterinary supervision as they can be dangerous to your guinea pig! [Ditto! I do not recommend them as there are documented cases where they have caused problems! - Lynx]

7. What is the recovery time for CL in guinea pigs?
No specific recovery time for guinea pigs was found. However, in horses with Streptococcus equii, another Group C Streptococcus which causes "Strangles" (similar to CL in guinea pigs), the total time for the disease to run its course is approximately 3 weeks.

In other animal species, Streptococcal spp. have been isolated for as long as 4 weeks after symptoms of disease have gone. However, it is unknown whether guinea pigs would continue to shed Streptococcus zooepidemicus for a similar length of time after their abscesses have drained and healed.

8. Are recovered guinea pigs carriers of CL?
There has been some indication that there could be carrier animals.

9. Is CL transmissible to humans?
Several sources stated that Group C Streptococcus, including Streptococcus zooepidemicus, may (but rarely) cause disease in humans. The people most likely to be affected would be the elderly or those with weakened immune systems.

10. Is there a vaccine available against CL in guinea pigs?
Yes and no. According to one source, the killed bacterins which would be found in a vaccine are not effective in preventing CL. However, studies have found that scratch injection of the oral mucosa with Streptococcus zooepidemicus (recovered from swine) stimulates immunity in the guinea pig.

11. Miscellaneous
    *Limiting the amount of coarse feed, especially very coarse stalky hay, may aid in decreasing the incidence of CL because irritation to the oral mucosa would be less. Hay is an important part of a guinea pig's diet, though. Therefore, a high-quality, dust-free, mold-free grass hay should be available to your guinea pig at all times.
    *Chronic CL infections can be exacerbated by stress. Lack of Vitamin C may also play a role in CL infections.
9/5/2003, 11:13 am
Paisley   Link to Post Go to the top of this page  
Paisley
Practical Organizer




NOTE: MANY OF THESE LINKS HAVE CHANGED. ORIGINAL TEXT BELOW DOTTED LINE. THANKS TO CHERYL FOR PROVIDING THIS INFO. Only the top links currently work on 4/3/06
-- Lynx

Merck Veterinary Online Manuel, Cervical Lymphadenitis:
http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/171526.htm&word=cervical%2clymphadenitis

Merck Manual Cervical Lymphadenitis Abscess picture:
http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/servlet/CVMHighLight?file=htm/bc/exlgp23.htm&word=Cervical,Lymphadenitis

Merck Veterinary Online Manual, Streptococcal Lymphadenitis: (in Pigs -
not G.P's although very simular, not sure if you want to include )
http://www.merckvetmanual.com/mvm/index.jsp?cfile=htm/bc/10803.htm&word=Streptococcal%2cInfections

Diseases of Domestic Guinea Pigs
by VCG Richardson, DVM -- 1992
Blackwell Science Ltd.
Paperback, 133 pages.
(Diseases of Domestic Guinea Pigs can be purchased from Amazon.com.)

Department of Lab Animal Resources
University of Texas Health Science Center-San Antonio -- 1999
“Diseases of Guinea Pigs”
Diseases of Guinea Pigs

The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
Department of Veterinary Pathology
WEDNESDAY SLIDE CONFERENCE -- 2001-2002
CONFERENCE 12
19 December 2001
Scroll to page 5:
Cervical Lymphadenitis

Guinea Pigs
Animal Care Unlimited
Guinea Pigs

Cervical Lymphadenitis in the Guinea Pig
James D. Henderson, Jr., DVM, MS
VM/SAC (April 1976), page 462-463
CL in Guinea Pigs

Lumps/Abscesses in Guinea Pigs
New Zealand Cavy Club, Inc.
Lumps/Abscesses in Guinea Pigs


Lancefield Group C Streptococcus
Group C Strep


Strangles in Horses
Frederick A. Cook Vet. Clinic
Strangles
......................................................................................................................................
Sources of Cervical Lymphadenitis (CL) Information

Diseases of Domestic Guinea Pigs
by VCG Richardson, DVM -- 1992
Blackwell Science Ltd.
Paperback, 133 pages.
(Diseases of Domestic Guinea Pigs can be purchased from Amazon.com.)

Merck Vet Manual Online -- 2003
Guinea Pigs, Cervical Lymphadenitis:
Merck CL

Merck Vet Manual Online
2003
Streptococcal Infections:
Merck Strep

Department of Lab Animal Resources
University of Texas Health Science Center-San Antonio -- 1999
“Diseases of Guinea Pigs”
Diseases of Guinea Pigs

Comparative Medicine Program 2002
Missouri U. College of Veterinary Medicine
“Cervical Lymphadenitis (Lumps)”
Cervical Lymphadenitis

The Armed Forces Institute of Pathology
Department of Veterinary Pathology
WEDNESDAY SLIDE CONFERENCE -- 2001-2002
CONFERENCE 12
19 December 2001
Scroll to page 5:
Cervical Lymphadenitis

LABORATORY ANIMAL MEDICINE AND SCIENCE - SERIES II
GUINEA PIGS

Infectious Diseases -- V-9025
Department of Veterinary Pathology
College of Veterinary Medicine
University of Missouri
Columbia, Missouri
Cervical Lymphadenitis

DISEASES OF GUINEA PIGS
POLA - 1996
Ralph M. Bunte, DVM
Veterinary Pathology Consultant
Diseases of Guinea Pigs

Guinea Pigs
Animal Care Unlimited
Guinea Pigs

The Medaille College Guide to the Guinea Pig
(by the students in VET 120 Fall 2002)
Guide to the Guinea Pig

Cervical Lymphadenitis in the Guinea Pig
James D. Henderson, Jr., DVM, MS
VM/SAC (April 1976), page 462-463
CL in Guinea Pigs

Pornchai Sanyathitiseree
Dept. of Medicine

“Disease of Guinea Pigs”
Diseases of Guinea Pigs

Lumps/Abscesses in Guinea Pigs
New Zealand Cavy Club, Inc.
Lumps/Abscesses in Guinea Pigs

ANZCCART News Vol 7 No 3 September 1994 Insert
Guinea Pigs
Scroll to page 7:
Guinea Pigs

For Pets in Need of Vets 2003
Pets in Need of Vets

Lancefield Group C Streptococcus
Group C Strep

Gram Positive, Non-Spore-Forming Bacteria
Gram-Positive Bacteria

Equine Disease Quarterly, July 1996
Disinfectants and their Germicidal Activity
See Table 2.
Disinfectants

Strangles in Horses
Frederick A. Cook Vet. Clinic
Strangles

Gutteral Pouch Disease in Horses
Gutteral Pouch Disease
9/5/2003, 11:48 am
Paisley   Link to Post Go to the top of this page  
Paisley
Practical Organizer




A Guinea Lynx Forums thread on Cervical Lymphadenitis (CL) in guinea pigs:
barbells
9/7/2003, 8:53 am
Lynx   Link to Post Go to the top of this page  
Lynx
Heartless Dictator




See also Zoe's experience successfully treating Cervical Lymphadenitis in two of her pigs:
http://www.guinealynx.info/forums/viewtopic.php?p=10257l#10257
4/4/2006, 9:51 am
Wheekers3   Link to Post Go to the top of this page  
Wheekers3
I wheek, therefore I am.




Some of Paisley's links are old and no longer work. The Merck Veterinary Online information is now located here:
Cervical Lymphadenitis

A photo example of surgically lanced Cervical Lymphadenitis Abcsess

and one other link I have found:
University of Missouri, Research Animal Diagnostic Laboratory Article
12/13/2008, 2:52 pm
Tracis   Link to Post Go to the top of this page  
Tracis
Queen of the Morlocks


Let Sleeping Pigs Lie

Additional threads and links can be found in the Records Forum.

LINKS - Cervical Lymphadenitis (CL)
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-22F = -30C
-4F = -20C
14F = -10C

32F = 0C
41F = 5C
50F = 10C
59F = 15C
68F = 20C
77F = 25C
86F = 30C
95F = 35C

98.6F = 37C
100.4F = 38C
102.2F = 39C
104.0F = 40C
105.8F = 41C
107.6F = 42C
109.4F = 43C
111.2F = 44C
113.0F = 45C
114.8F = 46C
116.6F = 47C
118.4F = 48C
120.2F = 49C
122.0F = 50C


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